The Fair Housing Act is a federal law in the United States that prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on certain protected characteristics. These characteristics include race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, and disability. The Fair Housing Act applies to most housing-related transactions, including the sale or rental of a home, the financing of a home purchase, and the advertising of housing. The law also provides for penalties and remedies for violations of the Act, and gives individuals who have experienced discrimination the right to file a complaint with the appropriate authorities. The Fair Housing Act is enforced by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Department of Justice.